– (cardio vascular system )

General information about the cardio vascular system:

Combined with the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system helps to fight off disease, helps the body maintain a normal body temperature, and provides the right chemical balance to provide the body’s homeostasis, or state of balance among all its systems.

The circulatory system consists of four major components:

• The Heart: About the size of two adult hands held together, the heart rests near the center of the chest. Thanks to consistent pumping, the heart keeps the circulatory system working at all times.

• Arteries: Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and where it needs to go.

• Veins: Veins carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs where they receive oxygen.

 Blood: Blood is the transport media of nearly everything within the body. It transports hormones, nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and other important things needed to keep the body healthy.

Oxygen enters the bloodstream through tiny membranes in the lungs that absorb oxygen as it is inhaled. As the body uses the oxygen and processes nutrients, it creates carbon dioxide, which your lungs expel as you exhale. A similar process occurs with the digestive system to transport nutrients, as well as hormones in the endocrine system. These hormones are taken from where they are produced to the organs they affect.

The circulatory system works thanks to constant pressure from the heart and valves throughout the body. This pressure ensures that veins carry blood to the heart and arteries transport it away from the heart. (Hint: to remember which one does which, remember that that “artery” and “away” both begin with the letter A.)

There are three different types of circulation that occur regularly in the body:

• Pulmonary circulation: This part of the cycle carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart.

• Systemic circulation: This is the part that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart and to other parts of the body.

• Coronary circulation: This type of circulation provides the heart with oxygenated blood so it can function properly .


About the disease

 The damage starts in your arteries and heart

• The primary way that (hypertension) high blood pressure causes harm is by increasing the workload of the heart and blood vessels — making them work harder and less efficiently.

• Over time, the force and friction of high blood pressure damages the delicate tissues inside the arteries. In turn, LDL (bad) cholesterol forms plaque along tiny tears in the artery walls, signifying the start of atherosclerosis.

• The more the plaque and damage increases, the narrower (smaller) the insides of the arteries become — raising blood pressure and starting a vicious circle that further harms your arteries, heart and the rest of your body. This can ultimately lead to other conditions ranging from arrhythmia to heart attack and stroke.

• High blood pressure(hypertension) is a “silent killer”

• You may not feel that anything is wrong, but high blood pressure(hypertension) could be quietly causing damage that can threaten your health. The best prevention is knowingyour numbers and making changes that matter in order to prevent and manage high blood pressure.

Sign & Symptoms 

Most people with high blood pressure will not experience any symptoms, which is why people often call hypertension the “silent killer.”

However, once blood pressure reaches about 180/120 mm Hg, it becomes a hypertensive crisis, which is a medical emergency.

At this stage, a person may have:

-a headache




-blurred or double vision


-heart palpitations


How to deal with the condition 

Treatment will depend on how dangerous the patients condition is but in general doctors recommend the following steps 

1- Diet 

-lowering salt intake 

-drinking tea , coffee & drinks that contain caffeine 

-eating fruits, vegetables & nuts 

-lowering dairy products 

2-Lifestyle adjustment 

-managing stress 

-quite smoking



-losing weight 

-adjusting sleep schedule

Diagnosis :

 There are different devices for measuring blood pressure, , blood pressure is measured at the doctor’s office using a blood pressure cuff, which can be attached to a sphygmomanometer that uses mercury for measuring blood pressure, or to an electronic reading device.

Digital devices are suitable for home use, and they available from pharmacies and for purchase online.

When a person gets a blood pressure reading, they will have one of the following:

A person will typically need more than one reading to confirm a diagnosis, as various factors can affect the result. 

Other tests can help confirm a diagnosis :

Urine and blood tests: These can check for underlying problems, such as a urine infection or kidney Damage .

Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG tests electrical activity in the heart. For a person with hypertension and high cholesterol levels, a doctor may order an ECG as a baseline for comparing future results.

Echocardiogram: Ultrasound waves show the heart in motion. The doctor will be able to detect problems, such as thickening of the heart wall, defective heart valves, blood clots, and excessive fluid around the heart.

Treatment :

The goal of hypertension treatment is to lower high blood pressure and protect important organs, like the brainheart, and kidneys from damage.

lifestyle modifications, such as eating a healthier diet, quitting smoking, and getting more exercise. Treatment with medication is recommended to lower blood pressure.

Drugs to Treat High Blood Pressure

There are several types of drugs used to treat high blood pressure, including:

1-Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

 drugs that widen or dilate your blood vessels to improve the amount of blood your heart pumps and lower blood pressure. 

 Example ; Lisinopril

2- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

 have the same effects as ACE inhibitors, another type of blood pressure drug, but work by a different mechanism.

Example ; valsartan

3- Diuretics

 commonly known as “water pills,” help your body get rid of unneeded water and salt through the urine.

Example ; Zaroxolyn (metolazone)


are drugs used to treat high blood pressure. They block the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on the heart.

Example : Bisoprolol (Zebeta)

5- Calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers lower your blood pressure by preventing calcium from entering the cells of your heart and arteries

Example ; Amlodipine (Norvasc)