Our immune system protects our body from harmful viruses, bacteria and other substances that enters our body. Allergic reaction is when our immune system overreacts to these allergens producing a cluster of distressing symptoms. Allergic Rhinitis is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced after allergen (such as pollen, dust, mould, or flakes of skin from certain animals) exposure due to an IgE-mediated inflammation of membranes lining the nose. It is clinically defined as a symptomatic condition with four major symptoms as anterior or posterior rhinorrhoea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal congestion.
Allergic rhinitis is a common allergic disease with increasing prevalence, recent estimates suggest it affects over 30% of individuals, particularly, but not exclusively, teenagers and young adults. Some people only get allergic rhinitis for a few months at a time because they’re sensitive to seasonal allergens, like tree or grass pollen. Other people get allergic rhinitis all year round.
There are two types of allergic rhinitis:
- Seasonal: Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can occur in spring, summer, and early fall. They are usually caused by allergic sensitivity to airborne mould spores or to pollens from trees, grass, and weeds.
- Perennial: People with perennial allergic rhinitis experience symptoms year-round. It is generally caused by dust mites, pet hair or dander, cockroaches, or mould. Underlying or hidden food allergies rarely cause perennial nasal symptoms.
Conclusion And Recommendations:
Early recognition and management of allergic rhinitis, which include allergen avoidance, immunotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment can prevent serious complications and significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. Its pharmacotherapeutic management involves non-sedating H1 -antihistamines to reduce rhinorrhoea and nasal itching, also corticosteroids to reduce allergic inflammation and nasal blockage. Pharmacists should advise patients about how to correctly administer their treatment, as well as reviewing its effectiveness regularly.